Publications from the Center of Mathematical Morphology

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J. Dirrenberger, S. Forest, D. Jeulin (2012): Elastoplasticity of auxetic materials. Computational Materials Science 64 57—61.
Materials exhibiting a negative Poisson's ratio (auxetics) have drawn attention for the past two decades, especially in the field of lightweight composite structures and cellular media. Studies have shown that auxeticity may result in higher shear modulus, indentation toughness and acoustic damping. Although elastic properties of such materials have been extensively investigated, the effect of plasticity on auxetic behavior has not been discussed. In particular, does the auxetic character of the material remain while entering the plastic domain? The present work aims at modeling the nonlinear...

L. Gillibert, C. Peyrega, D. Jeulin, V. Guipont, M. Jeandin (2012): 3D multiscale segmentation and morphological analysis of x-ray microtomography from cold-sprayed coatings. Journal of Microscopy 248(2) 187—199.
X-ray microtomography from cold-sprayed coatings brings a new insight on this deposition process. A noise-tolerant segmentation algorithm is introduced, based on the combination of two segmentations: a deterministic multiscale segmentation and a stochastic segmentation. The stochastic approach uses random Poisson lines as markers. Results on a X-ray microtomographic image of aluminium particles are presented and validated.

J. Bartovsky, E. Dokladalova, P. Dokládal, M. Akil (2012): Efficient FPGA architecture for oriented 1-D opening and pattern spectrum. Image Processing (ICIP), 2012 19th IEEE International Conference on, Orlando, FL (United States).
This paper deals with a dedicated hardware architecture for 1-D morphological opening and pattern spectrum. These operators allow extraction and measurement of 1-D features in images that is a commonly used technique in image analysis and texture classification. The architecture is based on a recently proposed opening algorithm and makes it possible to obtain arbitrary-oriented opening and granulometry at the same time. Respecting a sequential data access, several instances with different orientation can run in parallel on a single input dataflow, increasing thus the performance...

T. Baldeweck, E. Tancrède-Bohin, P. Dokládal, S. Koudoro, V. Morard, F. Meyer, E. Decencière, A.M. Pena (2012): Imagerie multiphoton de la peau humaine in vivo. Optique et Diagnostic (OPTDIAG), Paris (France).

J.L. Gautier, P. Dokládal, E. Coquelle (2012): Pavement Experts’ Knowledge Converted into an Automatic Assessment Tool. 7th Symposium on Pavement Surface Chracteristics : SURF, Norfolk (United States).

X. Zhang, G. Thibault, E. Decencière, G. Quellec, G. CAZUGUEL, A. Erginay, P. Massin, A. CHABOUIS (2012): Spatial normalization of eye fundus images. ISBI 2012 : 9th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging.
The development of digital retinal color imaging causes a substantial increase in the number and the size of retinal image databases. Image processing methods have been developed to help the specialists analyze these images. However, the heterogeneity of the databases, regarding image scale, contrast or quality, makes the design of generic image processing algorithms difficult. The presented work focuses on the spatial normalization of these images. The method is based on the definition of a size invariant in images. Unfortunately, the size of anatomical structures is either difficult to...

D. Jeulin (2012): Morphology, Effective Properties Of Multi-Scale Random Sets: A Review. Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences. Série IIb, Mécanique 240(4) 219—229.

M. Moreaud, D. Jeulin, V. Morard (2012): TEM Image Analysis, Modelling: Application To Boehmite Nanoparticles. Journal of Microscopy 245(2) 186—199.

G. Quellec, M. Lamard, B. Cochener, C. Roux, G. Cazuguel, E. Decencière, B. Laÿ, P. Massin (2012): A General Framework For Detecting Diabetic Retinopathy Lesions In Eye Fundus Images. 2012 25th International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS), Rome (Italy) 1—6.

T. Baldeweck, E. Tancrède-Bohin, P. Dokládal, S. Koudoro, V. Morard, F. Meyer, E. Decencière, A.M. Pena (2012): In vivo multiphoton microscopy associated to 3D image processing for human skin characterization. Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences.
Multiphoton microscopy has emerged in the past decade as a promising non-invasive skin imaging technique. The aim of this study was to assess whether multiphoton microscopy coupled to specific 3D image processing tools could provide new insights into the organization of different skin components and their age-related changes. For that purpose, we performed a clinical trial on 15 young and 15 aged human female volunteers on the ventral and dorsal side of the forearm using the DermaInspectR medical imaging device. We visualized the skin by taking advantage of intrinsic multiphoton signals from...

V. Morard, P. Dokládal, E. Decencière (2012): One-Dimensional Openings, Granulometries and Component Trees in O(1) Per Pixel. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 6(7) 840—848.
We introduce a new, efficient and adaptable algorithm to compute openings, granulometries and the component tree for one-dimensional (1-D) signals. The algorithm requires only one scan of the signal, runs in place in per pixel, and supports any scalar data precision (integer or floating-point data). The algorithm is applied to two-dimensional images along straight lines, in arbitrary orientations. Oriented size distributions can thus be efficiently computed, and textures characterized. Extensive benchmarks are reported. They show that the proposed algorithm allows computing 1-D openings...

G. Thibault, J. Angulo (2012): Efficient statistical/morphological cell texture characterization and classification. 21th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) 2440—2443.
This paper presents the different steps for an automatic fluorescence-labelled cell classification method. First a data features study is discussed in order to describe cell texture by means of morphological and statistical texture descriptors. Then, results on supervised classification using logistic regression, random forest and neural networks, for both morphological and statistical descriptors, is presented. We propose a final consolidated classifier based on a weighted probability for each class, where the weights are given by the empirical classification performances. The method is...

F. Meyer (2012): Made To Measure Top Hats. 21th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) 3164—3167.
Flooding, i.e. reconstruction openings, may be tailored such that only selected wells get filled, whereas others remain empty, resulting in particular morphological filters. Their residues constitute top-hats. Razings, i.e. reconstruction openings have the same effect on peaks.

E.H.S. DIOP, J. Angulo (2012): Spatially adaptive PDEs for robust image sharpening. 19th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) 949—952.
We present here discrete and continuous partial differential equation (PDE) -based methods for image enhancement/ sharpening. Using more robust and spatially adaptive PDEs, multiscale morphological operators that account image features are introduced, and then, used to provide a discrete enhancement operator, thanks to the former Kramer and Bruckner filter. A novel PDE associated to the introduced enhancement operator is established in 2D. Both the discrete and PDE-based sharpening filters are illustrated on synthetic, binary and real images.

A. Serna, J. Hernandez, B. Marcotegui (2012): Adaptive parameter tuning for morphological segmentation of building facade images. Proceedings of the 20th European Signal Processing Conference EUSIPCO 2012 2268—2272.
We present an adaptive method to segment Haussmannian facades from street level images. Our approach assumes that images are rectified, cropped and their elements are aligned in a pseudo-regular structure. It is based on the accumulation of directional color gradients, combined with morphological filters in order to deal with textured facades. We propose an automatic parametrization of three filters included in the process: opening filter of size n op, alternate sequential filter (ASF) of size n, and H-minima filter with contrast threshold h. This automatic selection offers robustness to...

A.M. Pena, T. Bladeweck, N. Parent, M. Carpentier-Chéraud, E. Decencière, E. Tancrède-Bohin (2012): Objectivation des modifications cutanées cortico-induites en fonction de l'âge. Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie 139(12) B74—75.

T. Bladeweck, A.M. Pena, E. Decencière, E. Tancrède-Bohin (2012): Objectivation des modifications cutanées liées au vieillissement par une technique d'imagerie non invasive de la peau : la microscopie multiphoton in vivo. Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie 139(12) B75.

F. Meyer (2012): First departure algorithms and image decompositions into peaks and wells. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 6(7) 795—808.
An image may be decomposed as a difference between an image of peaks and an image of wells. This decomposition depends upon the point of view, an arbitrary set from where the image is considered: a peak appears as a peak if it is impossible to reach it starting from any position in the point of view without climbing. A well cannot be reached without descending. To each particular point of view corresponds a different decomposition. The decomposition is reversible. If one applies a morphological operator to the peaks-and-wells components before applying the inverse transform, one gets a new,...

B. Figliuzzi, D. Jeulin, A. Lemaitre, G. Fricout, J.J. Piezanowski, P. Manneville (2012): Rheology of thin films from flow observations. Experiments in Fluids 53(5) 1289—1299.
A major challenge regarding thin films is the characterization of their rheology and the measurement of the fluid physical parameters. For complex fluids, performing direct rheology measurements is extremely difficult considering the geometric characteristics of thin films. In this paper, we present a method for characterizing the film rheology based on measurements at regular time intervals of the film surface topography. These measures allow us, by solving an inverse problem, to validate a model of rheology for the thin fluid film and to determine the physical parameters specific to this...

J. Bartovsky, E. Dokladalova, P. Dokládal, M. Akil (2012): Efficient FPGA architecture for oriented 1-D opening and pattern spectrum. 19th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), Orlando, Florida (United States) 1689—1692.
This paper deals with a dedicated hardware architecture for 1-D morphological opening and pattern spectrum. These operators allow extraction and measurement of 1-D features in images that is a commonly used technique in image analysis and texture classification. The architecture is based on a recently proposed opening algorithm and makes it possible to obtain arbitrary-oriented opening and granulometry at the same time. Respecting a sequential data access, several instances with different orientation can run in parallel on a single input dataflow, increasing thus the performance...

J. Bartovsky, P. Dokládal, E. Dokladalova, M. Bilodeau (2012): One-scan algorithm for arbitrarily oriented 1-D morphological opening and slope pattern spectrum. 19th International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) 133—136.
This paper presents a fast, one-scan algorithm for 1-D morphological opening on 2-D support. The algorithm is further extended to compute the pattern spectrum during a single image scan. The structuring element (SE) can be oriented under arbitrary angle that makes it possible to perform different orientation-involved image analysis, such as the local angle extraction, directional granulometry, etc. The algorithm processes an image in constant time regardless the SE orientation and size in one scan, with minimal latency and very low memory requirements. For pattern spectra, the...

H. Altendorf, E. Decencière, D. Jeulin, P. De Sa Peixoto, A. Deniset-Besseau, E. Angelini, G. Mosser, M.C. Schanne-Klein (2012): Imaging and 3D morphological analysis of collagen fibrils. Journal of Microscopy 247(2) 161—175.
The recent booming of multiphoton imaging of collagen fibrils by means of second harmonic generation microscopy generates the need for the development and automation of quantitative methods for image analysis. Standard approaches sequentially analyse two-dimensional (2D) slices to gain knowledge on the spatial arrangement and dimension of the fibrils, whereas the reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) image yields better information about these characteristics. In this work, a 3D analysis method is proposed for second harmonic generation images of collagen fibrils, based on a recently developed...

G. Quellec, M. Lamard, M.D. Abràmoff, E. Decencière, B. LAY, A. Erginay, B. Cochener, G. CAZUGUEL (2012): A Multiple-Instance Learning Framework for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening. Medical Image Analysis 16(6) 1228 —1240.
A novel multiple-instance learning framework, for automated image classification, is presented in this paper. Given reference images marked by clinicians as relevant or irrelevant, the image classifier is trained to detect patterns, of arbitrary size, that only appear in relevant images. After training, similar patterns are sought in new images in order to classify them as either relevant or irrelevant images. Therefore, no manual segmentations are required. As a consequence, large image datasets are available for training. The proposed framework was applied to diabetic retinopathy screening...

J. Frontera-Pons, J. Angulo (2012): Morphological operators for images valued on the sphere. 2012 19th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP 2012), Lake Buena Vista (United States) 113—116.
The lack of a natural ordering on the sphere presents an inherent problem when defining morphological operators extended to unit sphere. We analyze here the notion of averaging over the unit sphere to obtain a local origin which can used to formulate ordering based operators. The notion of local supremum and infimum is introduced, which allows to define the dilation and erosion for images valued on the sphere. The algorithms are illustrated using polarimetric images.

J. Frontera-Pons, J. Angulo (2012): Local supremum/infimum on the sphere and mathematical morphology for images valued on the sphere. Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Applied Geometric Algebras in Computer Science and Engineering 13 pages.

J. Frontera-Pons, J. Angulo (2012): Supervised morphological target detection from polarimetric Stokes vectors images. 2012 4th Workshop on Hyperspectral Image and Signal Processing: Evolution in Remote Sensing (WHISPERS 2012), Shangai (China) 4 pages.
This papers deals with supervised ordering on the unit hypersphere, which yields a rich framework for the generalization of all morphological operators on the sphere. In particular, supervised openings/closings and supervised hit-or-miss are introduced. Various strategies on the computation of the supervised ordering are considered and the different alternatives are studied for the purpose of structured target detection.

S. Velasco-Forero, J. Angulo (2012): Random projection depth for multivariate mathematical morphology. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing 6(7) 753—763.
The open problem of the generalization of mathematical morphology to vector images is handled in this paper using the paradigm of depth functions. Statistical depth functions provide from the "deepest" point a "center-outward ordering" of a multidimensional data distribution and they can be therefore used to construct morphological operators. The fundamental assumption of this data-driven approach is the existence of "background/foreground" image representation. Examples in real color and hyperspectral images illustrate the results.

T.P. Nguyen, S. Vu, A. Caplier (2012): Face Recognition using Multi-modal Binary Patterns - Proceedings. 21st International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2012), Tsukuba (Japan) n/c.
A new descriptor called Multi-modal Binary Patterns (MMBP) is proposed for face recognition. It balances well important requirements for real-world applications, including the robustness, discriminative power, and the low computational cost. The proposed algorithm has several desirable properties: 1) it captures information from face image in any direction as it is oriented feature, 2) being a spatial multi-scale structure, the descriptor catches not only local but also more global information about object, 3) it is robust to image transformation like variations of lighting, expressions, and...

K. Bernard, Y. Tarabalka, J. Angulo, J. Chanussot, J.A. Benediktsson (2012): Spectral-Spatial Classification of Hyperspectral Data based on a Stochastic Minimum Spanning Forest Approach. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 21(4) 2008—2021.
In this paper, a new method for supervised hyperspectral data classification is proposed. In particular, the notion of stochastic Minimum Spanning Forest (MSF) is introduced. For a given hyperspectral image, a pixelwise classification is first performed. From this classification map, M marker maps are generated by randomly selecting pixels and labeling them as markers for the construction of Minimum Spanning Forests. The next step consists in building an MSF from each of the M marker maps. Finally, all the M realizations are aggregated with a maximum vote decision rule, in order to build the...

M. Oumarou, D. Jeulin, J. Renard, P. Castaing (2012): Multi-scale statistical approach of the elastic and thermal behavior of a thermoplastic polyamid glass fiber composite. Technische Mechanik 32 484—506.
The strong heterogeneity and the anisotropy of composite materials require a rigorous and precise analysis as a result of their impact on local properties. First, mechanical tests are performed to determine the macroscopical behavior of a polyamid glass fiber composite. Then we focus on the influence of the heterogeneities of the microstructure on thermal and mechanical properties from finite element calculations on the real microstructure, after plane strain assumptions. 100 images in 10 different sizes (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 600 pixels) are analysed. The influence of...

B. Figliuzzi, D. Jeulin, A. Lemaitre, G. Fricout, P. Manneville, P. Jean-Jacques (2012): Numerical simulation of thin paint film flow. Journal of Mathematics in Industry 2(1) 2:1.
Being able to predict the visual appearance of a painted steel sheet, given its topography before paint application, is of crucial importance for car makers. Accurate modeling of the industrial painting process is required. The equations describing the leveling of the paint are complex and their numerical simulation requires advanced mathematical tools, which are described in detail in this paper. Simulations are validated using a large experimental database obtained with a wavefront sensor developed by PhasicsTM.

J. Angulo (2012): Morphologie mathématique pour des images multi-variées.

S. Beucher (2012): Towards a unification of waterfalls, standard and P algorithms.
This document is an extension of the paper: P algorithm, a dramatic enhancement of the waterfall transformation (see below). It has mainly two purposes. Firstly, it comes back to the waterfalls, standard and P algorithms to propose a general segmentation scheme which covers and unifies these different processes. Secondly, it contains the source code for the implementation of these waterfalls,

V. Morard (2012): Détection de structures fines par traitement d'images et apprentissage statistique : application au contrôle non destructif.
This PhD is dedicated to new image processing methods to extract or enhance thinobjects from an image. These methods stem from mathematical morphology, and they mainly focuson the accuracy of the detection and on the computation time. This second constraint is imposed bythe fact that we are dealing with high-throughput applications. The first part of this thesis presentsthese methods, organized according to the tortuosity of the objects to detect. We first propose afast algorithm for the computation of 1-D openings, used to extract thin and straight structures in theimages. Then, we study a...

F. Meyer (2012): Watersheds, waterfalls, on edge or node weighted graphs.
We present an algebraic approach to the watershed adapted to edge or node weighted graphs. Starting with the flooding adjunction, we introduce the flooding graphs, for which node and edge weights may be deduced one from the other. Each node weighted or edge weighted graph may be transformed in a flooding graph, showing that there is no superiority in using one or the other, both being equivalent. We then introduce pruning operators extract subgraphs of increasing steepness. For an increasing steepness, the number of never ascending paths becomes smaller and smaller. This reduces the watershed...

F. Meyer (2012): The watershed concept and its use in segmentation: a brief history.
The watershed is one of the most used tools in image segmentation. We present how its concept is born and developed over time. Its implementation as an algorithm or a hardwired device evolved together with the technology which allowed it. We present also how it is used in practice, first together with markers, and later introduced in a multiscale framework, in order to produce not a unique partition but a complete hierarchy.

D. Jeulin (2012): Multi Scale Random Sets: From Morphology to Effective Behaviour. Progress in Industrial Mathematics at ECMI 2010 381—393.
Complex microstructures in materials and in biology often involve multi-scale heterogeneous textures, that we model by random sets derived from Mathematical Morphology. Our approach starts from 2D or 3D images; a complete morphological characterization is performed, and used for the identification of a model of random structure. Simulations of realistic microstructures are introduced in a numerical solver to compute appropriate fields (electric, elastic, velocity, ...) and to estimate the effective properties by numerical homogenization, accounting for scale dependent statistical fluctuations...

S. Velasco-Forero (2012): Topics in mathematical morphology for multivariate images.
This thesis contributes to the field of mathematical morphology and illustrates how multivariate statistics and machine learning techniques can be exploited to design vector ordering and to include results of morphological operators in the pipeline of multivariate image analysis. In particular, we make use of supervised learning, random projections, tensor representations and conditional transformations to design new kinds of multivariate ordering, and morphological filters for color and multi/hyperspectral images. Our key contributions include the following points:• Exploration and...

F. Meyer (2012): Watersheds on edge or node weighted graphs.
The literature on the watershed is separated in two families: the watersheds on node weighted graphs and the watersheds on edge weighted graphs. The simplest node weighted graphs are images, where the nodes are the pixels ; neighboring pixels being linked by unweighted pixels. The edge weights on an edge weighted graph express dissimilarities between the unweighted nodes. Distinct definitions of minima and catchment basins have been given for both types of graphs from which different algorithms have been derived. This paper aims at showing that watersheds on edge or node weighted graphs are...

J. Angulo, S. Lefèvre, O. Lézoray (2012): Représentation et traitement couleur dans des espaces polaires : intensité, teinte et saturation. Imagerie numérique : Avancées et perspectives pour la couleur Chapitre 1.

L. Najman, F. Meyer (2012): A short tour of mathematical morphology on edge and vertex weighted graphs. Image Processing and Analysis with Graphs: Theory and Practice 141—174.
A short tour of mathematical morphology on edge and vertex weighted graphs

J. Escoda (2012): Modélisation morphologique et micromécanique 3D de matériaux cimentaires.
The goal of this thesis is to develop morphological models of cementitious materials and use these models to study their local and effective response. To this aim, 3D images of cementitious materials (mortar and concrete), obtained by micro-tomography, are studied. First, the mortar image is segmented in order to obtain an image of a real microstructure, to be used for linear elasticity computations. The image of concrete is used, after being processed, to determine various morphological characteristics of the material. A random model of concrete is then developed and validated by means of...

Y.P. Pellegrini, F. Willot (2012): Generalized two-body self-consistent theory of random linear dielectric composites: an effective-medium approach to clustering in highly-disordered media.
Effects of two-body dipolar interactions on the effective permittivity/conductivity of a binary, symmetric, random dielectric composite are investigated in a self-consistent framework. By arbitrarily splitting the singularity of the Green tensor of the electric field, we introduce an additional degree of freedom into the problem, in the form of an unknown "inner" depolarization constant. Two coupled self-consistent equations determine the latter and the permittivity in terms of the dielectric contrast and the volume fractions. One of them generalizes the usual Coherent Potential condition to...

F. Meyer (2012): The steepest watershed: from graphs to images.
The watershed is a powerful tool for segmenting objects whose contours appear as crest lines on a gradient image. The watershed transform associates to a topographic surface a partition into catchment basins, defined as attraction zones of a drop of water falling on the relief and following a line of steepest descent. Unfortunately, catchment basins may overlap and do not form a partition. Moreover, current watershed algorithms, being shortsighted, do not correctly estimate the steepness of the downwards trajectories and overestimate the overlapping zones of catchment basins. An arbitrary...

List of all publications from the CMM, recorded on the HAL depository under the tag ENSMP_CMM.

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